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elvish verbs have two realizations: "whole" and "halved." whole forms are the original verb forms, which conjugate for person, number, and transivity. halved forms, however, will instead use a plain "infinitive" form and take on an auxiliary co-verb, which declines for person, number, and transivity. historically, halved verbs were a special, small class of verbs that did not have whole versions, and so had to be expressed with a co-verb. however, in modern usage, halving the whole verbs has become standard in the casual register.

there are five co-verbs:

  • seóthon, to see
  • pala, to touch
  • non, to make/build
  • chóówa, to use
  • contha, to do with violent force
  • these co-verbs have these meanings due to association with the types of verbs they had to be used with, originally.

    as stated before, elvish verbs conjugate for person, number, transivity, and has a formal/informal split in 2nd and 3rd-person verbs. they do not conjugate for tense, but can be marked for aspect. there are three main verb classes, here listed in descending order of frequency: the -ON, the -A, and the -I, as well as a much rarer unmarked (-Ø) class.


    though halved forms are the norm in everyday speech, whole verb forms are retained in literary and liturgical elvish, and are described here under the verbs plain "infinitive," as used in halved forms. all elvish verbs are regular, except in cases where the root does not have a vowel that can be lengthened.

    the animate intransitive is used for when the subject of the sentence is any animate thing (animals, elves, etcetera) and has no object.

    -on verb as an animate intransitive:
    seóthon, to see

    singular plural
    1P seóthon seóthosh
    2P seóthan seóthash
    2P familiar seóthem seóthesh
    3P seóóthan seóóthash
    3P familiar seóóthem seóóthesh